Frequently asked questions
What is Neuro-Developmental Delay and how does it affect learning?
Neuro-Developmental Delay (NDD) describes the continued presence of a cluster of primitive reflexes in a child over six months of age, together with absent or under-developed postural reflexes above the age of 3 ½. The presence or absence of primitive and postural reflexes at key stages in development provides evidence of immaturity in the functioning of the central nervous system and will influence the development and control of posture, balance and motor skills.
Research over the last 40 years has shown that there is a direct link between immature infant reflexes, academic underachievement and increased anxiety. A remedial program aimed directly at stimulating and integrating primitive and postural reflexes can affect positive change in these areas.
Primitive reflexes are involuntary stereotyped responses to external stimuli that all infants make. Controlled at the lowest level of the brain – the brain stem, they develop in the womb, help the baby pass through the birth canal and frequently act as protective actions for the infant. Primitive reflex activity lays the foundation for further brain development. Most primitive reflexes go dormant around the time the baby is 6 months old. This occurs as the postural reflexes emerge and take over.
If a primitive reflex persists past the age of 6 months (except for the STNR) it is considered to be retained. Retained primitive reflex action can inhibit development of neurological pathways between higher and lower centers as well as the development of postural reflexes.
Postural reflexes help us maintain balance and plan how to move. They are mediated at the mid brain level, which is the area that oversees the mechanics of our movement. They remain with us for life and help lay the foundation for optimal cortical function.
When postural reflexes are not able to properly develop, they are considered to be immature. They are not sufficiently established to maintain balance or support voluntary movement which is necessary for the highest level of the brain - the cortex - to perform adequately.
What is The Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology?
The Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology (INPP) was established in 1975 by psychologist Peter Blythe Ph.D. The Institute was set up as a private research organization to investigate the effects of immaturity in the functioning of the central nervous system in children with Specific Learning Difficulties and adults suffering from Agoraphobia and Panic Disorder; to devise reliable methods of assessment; and to develop, supervise and evaluate effective programs of remedial intervention. INPP is a self-funding organization involved in research, clinical practice and training in the methods developed at INPP. INPP Chester is the certifying body for all countries providing training it its methods.
How does the INPP method of NDD remediation work?
The INPP Method is based on over 45-years of pioneering research, expertise and practice investigating and helping children to resolve physical factors underlying learning and behavioral problems. It is a completely drug-free and non-invasive program using tailored daily physical exercises to help a child succeed.
INPP’s proven track record demonstrates how the method can help children overcome difficulties associated with:
Developmental Coordination Disorder
Balance related problems
The INPP method provides assessment and intervention in the form of a daily movement program which is carried out at home, under parental supervision to improve the physical foundations for learning. Progress is assessed at 6-8week intervals.
What is Dance/Movement Therapy?
The American Dance Therapy Association (ADTA) defines dance/movement therapy as the psychotherapeutic use of movement to promote emotional, social, cognitive and physical integration of the individual.
Dance/movement therapy is:
- Focused on movement behavior as it emerges in the therapeutic relationship. Expressive, communicative, and adaptive behaviors are all considered for group and individual treatment. Body movement, as the core component of dance, simultaneously provides the means of assessment and the mode of intervention for dance/movement therapy.
- Practiced in mental health, rehabilitation, medical, educational and forensic settings, and in nursing homes, day care centers, disease prevention, health promotion programs and in private practice.
- Effective for individuals with developmental, medical, social, physical and psychological impairments.
- Used with people of all ages, races and ethnic backgrounds in individual, couples, family and group therapy formats.
What is Laban Movement Analysis?
Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) is a method and language for describing, visualizing, interpreting and documenting all varieties of human movement. The method uses a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating contributions from anatomy, kinesiology, psychology, Labanotation and many other fields. Many derived practices have developed with great emphasis on LMA methods. It is used as a tool by dancers, actors, musicians, athletes, physical and occupational therapists, psychotherapy, peace studies, anthropology, business consulting, leadership development, health & wellness, and is one of the most widely used systems of human movement analysis today.
What does a Laban Movement Analyst do?
A Laban Movement Analyst is a skilled movement professional who has a highly refined understanding of the patterns of movement through the Laban Movement Analysis lenses of Body, Effort, Shape and Space.
As a Movement Specialist, a Laban Movement Analyst uses his/her comprehensive knowledge to identify movement patterns, convey the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of any human movement, and prepare people in numerous fields for active participation in the world.
A Laban Movement Analyst uses the Laban/Bartenieff System as a framework for structural, spatial, rhythmic, shape and dynamic components in human movement observation, synthesis, and analysis. From an LMA/BF perspective, a Movement Analyst possesses an acute understanding of a specific movement event and its complexity and context. A Laban Movement Analyst:
- Appreciates the functional and expressive aspects of human movement and perceives the interpretive/subjective processes that take place through movement.
- Understands and appreciates an individual’s movement pat
terns and relates to and works with that in mind.
- Refines and expands one’s movement repertoire by deepening movement awareness and understanding, and by providing the experience of a global range of movement within diverse environments.
- Assesses human movement within an individual, group, cultural, situational and environmental contexts.
- Has an understanding of their own and others’ movement style within a variety of contexts, including social interaction.
- Has the knowledge and ability to verbally articulate and physically demonstrate the LMA concepts of Body, Effort, Shape, and Space from both broad and discreet perspectives.
- Is able to verbally articulate and physically demonstrate the basic principles of Bartenieff Fundamentals™, along with their theoretical and practical relationship to LMA.
- Has the ability to develop and apply theory in practice in diverse fields.
- Has training in observing, recording and interpreting movement data using Motif, phrase writing, and recording from digital and live observation.
What is Bartenieff Fundamentals™?
Bartenieff Fundamentals™ is an extension of Laban Movement Analysis, extended and developed by Irmgard Bartenieff, who trained with Warren Lamb before becoming a physiotherapist. Concepts and principles of kinesiological functioning are identified which are embodied in particular sequences and extended into all types of movement possibilities.
Basic Concepts of Bartenieff Fundamentals℠
Bartenieff Fundamentals℠ is a construct that focuses on movement integration and harmony. When moving, our coordination is affected by body connections, center of weight and the relationship to initiation and follow through of a given action. Bartenieff Fundamentals℠ was developed by Irmgard Bartenieff in applying Rudolf Laban’s movement theories to the physical/kinesiological functioning of the human body. In developing the principles of Fundamentals, Bartenieff was concerned with support of the body to facilitate functional, expressive and efficient movement experiences. Bartenieff Fundamentals℠ were developed to provide exercise concepts for the experience of the body in motion with an awareness of how and why it is moving.
The Fundamentals are developmentally based. They mirror the stages of development of the brain and the motor skills that babies and toddlers progress through on their way to mastering mature movement patterns. Practicing the Fundamentals strengthens the body’s internal support for both every-day and highly skilled movement. The Fundamentals require the use of deep muscles, close to the core of the body, and the use of breath support to increase the power and flow of movement. They also require a clear spatial intent: an understanding of where movement initiates in the body and how it sequences through the body from one part to another.